Pure white subjects generally require 2 stops more exposure.
For misty scene, take a spot-metering reading from the brightest area of the image and assign it as a very light tone by increasing the reading by 1-2 stops.
For reflections, use a neutral density graduated filter over the sky to lower its brightness, but take note that the reflection should never appear brighter than the source.
Shutter speed lower than 1/60 will be more prone to exhibit the effects of camera shake and vibrations.
To record proper movement of water, 1/15-4sec are generally very effective. Shoot when the waves are receding as this has a more predictable result and reduces the chances of large areas of bright foam.
Use shutter speed of 1/15-1/2sec to record waterfall movement.
To take snow, take a spot-metering reading from the sunlit snow and add 1 1/2 stops to the reading so that the snow is recorded as a very light tone.
To make sure silhouette appears as a featureless black, take a meter reading directly from it - it should be at least 3 stops darker than your shooting exposure.
For wide-angle landscape, in order to have foreground and background distinctly sharp, use a small aperture, e.g. f/16.